You should be able to get any info from items in the cart using the following CartThrob template tags.
cart_items_info Outputs information about items in the cart, including item subtotals and prices with tax
item_options Outputs selectable and selected options for items in the cart, or stored items
cart_entry_ids lists entry ids of items in the cart separated by a pipe | character
customer_info Outputs customer information. Generally you can use cart items info instead, as long as there is at least one item in the cart
If you find that you cannot get particular custom field data from your products then you can use the CT tags to get the entry_id of the product and pass this to an embed or snippet which can be a normal exp:channel:entries tag pair.
So yes. What you describe should certainly be possible.