There is nothing currently in Store that allows you to do something like this. There is currently Global Product Variations feature request that would cover exactly what you are looking for.
Having said that if your product modifiers are not adjusting the price, do not require stock levels, or needing separate SKUs (I think those are the only limits) you can create the variations at the template level using text modifiers in your templates.
The input parameter allows you to use custom product modifiers defined
in your template, rather than setting them up on a per-product basis.
This is useful if you are selling a large number of similar products.
For example, to allow a Small, Medium and Large size option for every
product in your store, add the following parameter to the product tag:
Then, further down the form, you can use standard HTML to submit the
modifier along with the rest of the form:
These modifiers will behave like any other text modifiers, and display
on the checkout and order details pages.