While the Calendar:Events template tag may work similarly to the EE Channel:Entries tag, it is much more limited. This is because Calendar looks at event recurrence rules and populates the additional occurrences that way (rather than the recurrences actually existing in database). This inflates the counts and can take a huge hit on performance. In Calendar 1.x we had a large number of customers complain about performance issues, so in Calendar 2.x we sacrificed some extra Channel:Entries functionality in favor of huge performance gains. We did this by rewriting our own version of the Channel:Entries functionality and just included what we believed to be the more commonly used features. Unfortunately some features such as search parameter and third party field types are limited or not built in at this time.
In the particular case of images, there is limited support for EE file fields, and you can read more about that here:
In some cases it works to embed a template with Channel:Entries tag to parse extra variables or conditionals, but in the case of filling the gaps for excluded parameters, I don't believe there is an easy way around it unfortunately.