I don't think it's left that many short to be honest.
Most developers I'm aware of save their templates as files.
Whilst I'd always recommend having version control in place, you don't need it, you can still save templates as files without Git.
As for tutorials, the Ellislab docs are pretty explicit about how it's done.
The learning curve for Git isn't ...
I'll elaborate more on my comment to answer the poster more fully...
There isn't a reliable, solid mechanism (especially automated) that I've come across that can safely migrate content forwards onto a live site - especially if you have living data (membership, commenting, forums, etc). If considering this, also remember environment configs and entry hit ...
For the control panel there are probably add-ons for this, like better workflow or maybe draftEE.
For the front-end you can do some conditional checking in the template before showing the channel-form (safecracker).
1) Verify the template files system path is correct:
Design > Templates > Global Preferences
2) Generally speaking, you can clear the current cache by navigating to "Tools > Data > Clear Caching". You can also try deleting all of the cache files in the /system/expressionengine/cache/ folder but I haven't tried that for this type of scenario.
Run a local dev server on your machine. To make life easy use MAMP, XAMPP, or similar. Maybe try Virtual Box/Vagrant if you're feeling saucy. I'm on a Mac so I use MAMP Pro and SequelPro to manage server and database.
Install Git on your local machine.
Set up a remote private Git repo at Bitbucket/Github. Bitbucket is free, even for private repos.
Set up ...
Mountee shutting down forced me to change my workflow as well. Here's what's working for me:
Save templates as files.
Buy Coda 2 (panic.com)
Setup a site in Coda with a local git repository, and the web server as the remote location.
When I start implementing a new feature, I edit templates on the remote server. When it's all working, I sync everything ...